Mac Pro 1,1 Processor Upgrade

Following the previous upgrades to my 2006 Mac Pro I finally decided to take the plunge and swap out the original dual core Xeon CPU’s for some quad core ones.  A matched pair of Xeon 5355’s came up on Ebay at a sensible price and from a reputable seller so I snapped them up.  The seller actually had four pairs for sale and they were sold pretty quickly so there is clearly still some demand for 5355’s.

Heatsinks Removed

There are a multitude of videos available on Youtube detailing the relatively simple procedure of removing the old Xeons and replacing them.  All you need are the new processors, some good thermal paste, a couple of Phillips screwdrivers and a 3mm Allen/Hex key which needs to ideally be at least 6″ long.  You’ll also need something to clean the old thermal paste off of the heat sinks, isopropyl alcohol is ideal, anything else risks leaving residue which will negatively impact on the heat transfer between CPU and heat sink.  Optional extras are a can of compressed air for cleaning out any dust build up and an anti-static wrist strap.

I won’t go into the full procedure here as others have already documented it well.  A couple of points I would make are firstly many who have performed the upgrade refer to issues removing the memory cage screws, I had no such problems but did use a small jeweller’s screwdriver which allowed vertical orientation and full purchase with the screw head.

Original Xeon 5150’s

Secondly, I was surprised by how thick the factory application of thermal compound was when I removed the heat sinks, I had expected a thin veneer but it was definitely thicker than that.  This rather threw me as to how much compound I should apply on re-installation.

In the end I decided to apply a thin line horizontally across the CPU’s with an additional smaller vertical line making a cross.  I didn’t spread out the compound but instead allowed the pressure of re-attaching the heat sink to flatten it out.

Reassembly was straightforward, I even managed to complete the whole operation without dropping one screw.  The machine promptly booted up and I ran Geekbench to assess what performance improvement the new Xeons were giving.

Geekbench Score Shows Huge Improvement

With the original Xeon 5150’s Geekbench would typical return a score in the low 5000’s.  With the 5355’s the score has leapt to 9456, a very useful improvement in performance bringing my 2006 Mac Pro within touching distance of a 2012 iMac Core i7.

The only thing left to do now is monitor the CPU temperatures for a while to ensure the thermal compound is working well.  There are a number of different apps out there that claim to give accurate read outs of the Pro’s thermal sensors, however in my experience they all seem to give different results.  I’ve therefore decided to trust the software that I’m familiar with, namely Marcel Bresink’s aptly named ‘Temperature Monitor”.

Temperature Monitor

This is showing the cores running at an average of about 40°C under light load* which is around 30% higher than the previous processors. Considering there are twice as many cores and that the thermal compound has not broken in yet this seems pretty reasonable to me.  Also a considerable upswing in the ambient temperature that has coincided with the upgrade must be taken into account.

I decided to download SMC Fan Control and crank the systems fans up by a couple of hundred RPM just to be on the safe side, they are still whisper quiet.  There is one last issue that needed resolving, when you perform this upgrade and click on About This Mac you’re likely to get a processor unknown reading although System Report will show the correct number of cores.

There are a couple of solutions to this, you can try upgrading the 1,1 firmware to 2,1 using this utility.  Or you can do what I did which was download the CPU injector Kext from here (updated with new link, see original article here) and install it with a kext utility, I used Kext Helper b7 here (updated with new link.)

*After three months of running smoothly the CPU temperatures under light load are now averaging around 32°C so clearly the thermal compound has bedded in well and I’ve been able to leave the fans running at factory settings.  I recently installed Windows 7 and have been enjoying a number of games, the machine remains stable and reliable.

*More than 12 months have now passed since this upgrade and I’m pleased to report the machine is still running smoothly.  Despite very hot ambient temperatures here presently, the Mac Pro remains whisper quiet.

*Update (08 December 2013) Following John’s post in the comments section below I returned to find some of the links in the original post broken.  I have therefore hosted the CPU Injector Kext and the Kext Help B7 utility myself and updated the links.  The original article covering the CPU injector Kext can by found at the Internet Archive.  With regards to the machine itself it is still running perfectly.

*Update (19 December 2013) I’ve installed OS X Mavericks using the target disk mode method.  Running Geekbench again under Mavericks yields a result of 9841.

*Update (11 October 2014) Another reader has pointed out that the links in the original post are broken again.  I have therefore reolcated and hosted the CPU Injector Kext and the Kext Help B7 utility myself and updated the links.

SSD, eSATA and USB 3 In A Mac Pro

Easily the best computer I’ve ever owned, my 2006 Mac Pro (model 1,1) is still doing sterling work as my main machine.  With two 2.66 GHz dual core Intel Xeon 5150 processors and 7 GBs of RAM it still happily chomps its way through most tasks that I throw at it and runs Lion without issue.

There is however one main area where it’s just starting to look a bit long in the tooth and that’s disk access speeds.  Boot up time has become rather pedestrian and Lightroom is just starting to creak a little when handling my 10,000 plus library of mostly 21 megapixel RAW files.  Then there’s Photoshop which takes about 30 seconds to launch.

I’m sorely tempted by a new 27″ iMac but I’m guessing there’s a refresh due at any time and have therefore set myself a budget of £200 plus VAT to ‘pimp’ my Mac Pro for the time being.  Given my recent success with installing an SSD in my PowerMac Cube I decided my first purchase should be an SSD to replace the original system disk in the Pro.

Kingston SSD & Icy Dock

I opted for a Kingston 120 GB V+200 SATA3 unit which came in at £121.32 and mounted it an Icy Dock converter box for £9.57.  Currently in the Mac Pro I have the original 160 GB system disk, two 400 GB drives in a striped 800 GB RAID and an additional single 750 GB drive.  For backup I have an external 2 TB MyBook connected via Firewire 800.

I decided I wanted a clean install of Lion on the new drive, not least because it’s quite difficult to copy the recovery partition that the existing Lion installation had created and because there was still detritus from my original PowerMac G5 which I’d copied over when I first bought the Mac Pro.  Having already upgraded to Lion I no longer had the original installation files so using my MacBook which is still running Snow Leopard I grabbed the files via the App Store and created an install DVD using this guide.

Icy Dock Fitted In Mac Pro Sled

I pulled out all my other drives and installed the SSD using the Icy Dock.  I then booted from the installation DVD which, by the way, took so long that I was literally just about to give up and restart when it finally launched.

I formatted the SSD into one partition using Disk Utility and installed Lion, the process taking about 15 minutes.  I decided against transferring any old files as I wanted to keep this install as clean as possible.  I reinstalled Lightroom and Photoshop from DVD and a few other items from the App Store that I still use, replaced my other drives and tried the system out.  The difference in speed is very noticeable, boot now takes about 10-15 seconds as opposed to the 1 minute plus it used to, Photoshop launches in less than 5 seconds and most other Apps launch instantaneously.  It is certainly a very worthwhile upgrade.

eSATA Extender

I’d also quite like a faster way of connecting external drives than the existing Firewire 800.  I can’t imagine Thunderbolt coming to the Mac Pro any time soon and my mind therefore turned to USB 3 and eSATA.  The later option is a simple and relatively cheap upgrade given that the Mac Pro sports two free SATA ports on the mainboard.  I ordered an upgrade kit from Sonnet for £22.49 which provides two eSATA ports via a faceplate which can be mounted in a spare PCIe bay.

Fitting the eSATA kit is a little bit fiddly and in order to gain access to the SATA ports on the motherboard requires the removal of the RAM riser card unit, the CPU heatsink cover and the CPU fan assembly.  Fortunately the Sonnet kit contains very clear and precise instructions so whilst fiddly it was a relatively pain free upgrade.

USB 3 PCIe Card

Apple don’t currently support USB 3 with any of their products.  You can however add it to the Mac Pro via the PCIe slots.  LaCie make a card and supply drivers for free download.  The LaCie card is a little on the expensive side compared to other manufacturers and I noticed that this card by StarTech looks identical and uses the same NEC chip.  I therefore decided to take a gamble and order the StarTech card which cost £16.66 in the hope that it would work with the LaCie drivers.

Installation was of course straightforward, there is an optional Molex connector on the card which presumably provides additional power for any USB devices which aren’t self powered.  I made an attempt to run an extender cable from the card to the spare Molex connector in the optical drive bay but couldn’t find a satisfactory way of routing it.  As I will most likely be connecting an external drive I’m not overly fussed about the additional power option.

Icy Box USB 3.0 Enclosure

I opted for an Icy Box HDD enclosure with a USB 3.0 interface, specifically the IB-318StU3-B.  It’s cheap but functional, installation of the HDD is a simple affair and the unit is supplied with a USB 3.0 cable.  After testing its SATA speed I removed a 750 GB SATA II drive  that was installed in one of the Mac Pro’s drive bays and installed it in the Icy Dock.  I hooked the unit up to the USB 3.0 ports but the drive was not recognised.  I then tried connecting to the Pro’s built in USB 2.0 ports and the drive mounted with no problems.  After a quick search I was able to find some drivers that would work with non LaCie drives and after successfully installing the Kext rebooted and the drive mounted whilst connected to the USB 3.0 ports!  I used Blackmagic Disk Speed Test which I downloaded from the App Store to test the drive and found the drive was quicker whilst mounted in the USB 3.0 enclosure than it had been when connected by SATA.  In fact the Seagate HDD is pretty much operating at its quoted maximum sustained data tranfer rate, I shall have to try an SSD in the enclosure next.  Full results are below.

MyBook Studio Edition

I then connected the MyBook via eSATA and was somewhat surprised to find on testing that it was roughly twice as fast as my internal RAID.  This didn’t really make any sense given that both were connected to the same bus.  I ran a few more tests and confirmed the internal RAID was definitely under performing.  I decided to repartition the drives and rebuild the array.  I restored the data from Time Machine and tested again and found it was now much faster though still trailing the the MyBook.  I’m assuming HDD’s in the MyBook are just faster drives.

Using Blackmagic again these are the average results I achieved showing the eSATA RAID achieving the fastest write speed and the SSD the fastest read speed:-

Drive/s            Write MB/s    Read MB/s

  • SSD            Write 103    Read 185
  • SATA 750 GB        Write 44    Read 55 (SATA II)
  • USB 3.0            Write 78    Read 76 (Above SATA II HDD)
  • SATA RAID        Write 51    Read 67
  • SATA RAID        Write 78    Read 119 (Rebuilt)
  • USB2            Write 35    Read 35 (MyBook via USB 3 Card)
  • Firewire 800        Write 34    Read 14 (MyBook)
  • eSATA RAID        Write 116    Read 130 (MyBook)
  • SATA RAID (New Drives)    Write 310    Read 323 (See Update Below)

I’m not sure why the MyBook connected via Firewire 800 is proving slower than when connected via USB 2, a rather odd result.  I’m pleased with the eSATA performance and as using this method connects directly to the onboard SATA the MyBook is sleeping and waking with the main machine.  I hope shortly to have a USB 3 device to test, there seems to be a distinct lack of decent products available at the moment.  So far then I’ve spent £170.04 + VAT.  A USB 3 drive enclosure will probably take me over budget and one other upgrade I am tempted by, an ATI 5770 graphics card, will of course completely blow it.

(Update 19th April 2012)

After much mmming and ahhhing about whether to buy a new iMac or Mac Pro I’ve decided instead to further improve my current Mac Pro.  Out goes the ATI X1900 graphics adapter and in comes an AMD 5770.  A simple swap out although an additional mini display port to DVI adapter was required to hook up my two Cinema Displays.  This has allowed me to download some games from the App Store to try, namely Dirt 2 and Bioshock which both look stunning in 1920 x 1200 resolution.  The 5770 is also even quieter than the less than noisy itself X1900, which is a nice bonus.

Also on their way out the two 400 GB Seagate drives that formed my RAID.  In their place, two Seagate Barracuda 2TB, 7200 RPM, 6 GBit/s drives with 64MB caches (ST2000DM001.)  Seagate quotes average data transfer rates for these drives at 156 MB/s and a maximum sustained rate of 210 MB/s, this is a considerable improvement on the previous drives (ST3400620AS) which were rated at 78 MB/s maximum sustained data transfer rate.  Once I’d swapped out the drives and built the striped RAID (0) via Disk Utility I again fired up Blackmagic Disk Speed Test and finally achieved some respectable results which I’ve added to the table above.

Blackmagic Disk Speed Test